Most of the people do not differentiate their diabetes with the other. They usually think there is no difference of individual diabetes. But it is not true even two family members can have a different type of diabetes and according to their type, treatment is varied. Every health aware must know this fact. The team of modern Endocrinologists of WHO divided this complex disease as under -
What is type-1 diabetes?
It is a condition when insulin secretion process gets off, because of some disturbance in individual immune system due to many reasons , which destroys the “beta cell” of pancreas ; a gland located behind stomach which secrets Insulin. Mostly it happens under the age of 20, but can be at any age, 8-10% of total diabetic population is of type-1Diabetes,also known as juvenile Diabetes.
- ◘ Excessive thirst
- ◘ Increased number of urine
- ◘ Weakness
- ◘ Weight loss in gross.
- ◘ Increased appetite
- ◘ Itching/cuts in sex organs
- ◘ Itching, skin infections
- ◘ Nausea, abdominal discomfort or pain, and change in bowel movements may accompany acute DKA ( Diabetic Ketoacidosis)
- ◘ Headaches
- ◘ Leg cramps.
Some known risk factors for type 1 Diabetes include –
- ◘ Family history – Plays important role in type-1 diabetes and important risk factor, presence of certain genes increases risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
- ◘ The incidence of type 1 diabetes tends to increase in migrant families.
- ◘ First peak occurs in since birth to four years, second peak between four to seven and third peak between ten to sixteen years.
Some other possible risk factors are –
- ◘ Exposure to repeated viral infection, such as mumps virus and cytomegalovirus.
- ◘ Early feeding of cow’s milk in spite of mother breast feed.
- ◘ Deficiency of Vitamin D
- ◘ Mother have preeclampsia during pregnancy
- ◘ Being born with jaundice
Injectable Insulin is the first choice of treatment your doctor will decide the dose and regime as per the requirement.
Type -1 Diabetes emergency –
As this type of diabetes is found mostly in children and teens; so a team work between the patient parents and doctor is needful for better and long lasting control to avoid the diabetic complications (both short term and long term) in early stage.
There are two types of Short term complications or emergencies –
- ◘ Hypoglycaemia ( low blood sugar level from normal)
- ◘ Diabetic Ketoacidosis (constant high blood sugar )
Long term complications –
- ◘ Diabetic Retinopathy (related to eye)
- ◘ Diabetic Neuropathy (related to nerves)
- ◘ Diabetic Nephropathy (related to kidneys)
- ◘ Cardio-vascular disease (related to heart)
Long term complications come usually after 10 years of diabetic life. Kindly see the details in complication chapter.
What is type-2 diabetes?
Diabetes type-2 is a disease of malfunction of the Pancreas (part of digestive system), it is located behind stomach and produces a secretion called Insulin; which is important to metabolize sugar and starch from diet and plays important role in digestion and regulating blood sugar level. The well-known role of Insulin is to maintain the concentration of glucose in the blood, and allow the body cells to use glucose to generate energy for our day to day conduct. When Pancreas
- ◘ Unable to make Insulin, or.
- ◘ Produce less quantity of Insulin or,
- ◘ Produce low quality of insulin, which does not work as it should be.
- 1. Genes
- 2. Sedentary life style
- 3. Unhealthy food habits
- 4. Overweight or obese
- 5. Sustained mental stress
- 6. Self medication (steroid for at once relief)
- 7. Metabolic Syndrome etc.
Symptoms are as under –
- 1. Fatigue
- 2. Extreme thirst
- 3. Frequent urination
- 4. Extreme hunger
- 5. Weight loss ( with normal or excess food)
- 6. Frequent Infections of privet parts
- 7. Slow wound healing
- 8. Blurry vision
- 9. Long fever not responding to medication.
It is not necessary all symptoms will be in everyone, may have 2-3 only.
Risk factors of diabetes type-2 –
- • Age 40 years or above
- • Sedentary or inactive life style
- • Obese or Over weight
- • Family history, If parent, brother, sister or any sibling have diabetes
- • In migrant f families to other country.
- • If history of GDM (Gestational diabetes Mellitus).
- • At the time of birth baby is under weight or over weight.
- • If upper (Systolic)BP is above 140 mm of Hg and lower (diastolic) BP is above 90 mm of Hg.n
- • Triglycerides cholesterol levels is higher than 280 mg% and good cholesterol HDL is less than 32 mg%.
- • If consume more than three days rich diet and alcohol in a week.
- • Regular severe stress.
- • If two or more readings of Fasting, PP or Radom are high in last three months.
- • HbA1c level of 5.7 to 6.4 % or three times blood sugar level were found high.
- • If female have poly-cystic ovary syndrome, known as PCOS or PCOD
- • If a person dark, velvety-black lines (called acanthosis nigricans) around neck or armpits.
- • If history of cardiovascular disease.
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) OR Type-3
Diabetes during pregnancy
Gestational Diabetes is type-3 diabetes can suddenly appear in 4% of pregnant women, the hormonal changes of pregnancy stress the mother’s system and in some cases, It interferers the mother insulin production, as a result, mother get high blood sugar level leads from miscarriage to congenital deformities in newborn baby and risky for mother life during pregnancy also.
This type of diabetes usually disappears after the birth of the baby,20-40 % of these women develop diabetes within 3 to 5 years.
So the first step towards preventing gestational diabetes is to know about the risk factors for the same. Once you know that you are at high risk, can make efforts to reduce the risk factors and to monitor your health, regular check-up in details and right time consult with the doctor can prevent gestational diabetes.
Risk Factors -
- 1. If age is more than 30 years in first pregnancy.
- 2. Strong family history of Diabetes (if mother or father have type-1 diabetes than risk is high).
- 3. Obesity.
- 4. Have symptoms of diabetes ( increased - thirst, number of urine; vaginal itching or infections, unexplained weakness etc.) but blood sugar is normal.
- 5. History of miscarriage
- 6. Previous stillbirth
- 7. Having a previous birth of an overweight baby of 4 kg or more.
- 8. If having polycystic ovarian syndrome
How you can minimise the risk of Gestational Diabetes –
If you have more than three conditions from above described points and you are pregnant then you are at high risk. If you are planning to conceive then make proper planning for it.
Correct your life style-
Go for morning walk 15-30 minutes five days in a weak with stretching exercises, if you are working than be active in your office.
Take proper Diet -
Make four hour interval in two meals ,Avoid junk, high calories food and reduce the numbers of cup of tea and coffee; increase fresh fruits, green vegetables, sprouts and cheese in your diet or consult with an qualified dietician. Avoid Constipation.
Keep yourself Hydrated –
1-2 lemon juice/day and add 6-8 glass fresh water/day help to eliminate your bodily toxins.
Start monitoring your blood sugar level fasting, after two hours of meal and Hba1c for counter check your blood sugar level of last three months before the conception., or as adviced by your family doctor.
Medical Intervention -
After getting pregnant contact as earliest possible with the professional medical team of doctors to avoid any kind of complications related to Gestational diabetes.
Treatment for gestational diabetes ranges from diet management to insulin therapy.
Some personalised Complimentary Alternative medicines are found beneficial to maintain blood sugar level, as well as for mother and child health. Other
Fourth group –
MRDM ( Malnutrition related diabetes mellitus) previously this variety was not found in India. But now some patients are registered in metropolitan city hospitals, Imbalance diet is the main cause of it.
Fifth Group –
In this variety pancreas function is effected due to inflammatory conditions stones, cyst, tumour etc. in it.
Stable diabetes, Brittle diabetes represents this Variety. So one should understand the depth of diabetes and never try any medicine without consulting the Physician or Diabetologist of your city.